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Crunching the Numbers

Hate Crime Trends

The data presented in this section were compiled primarily from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the U.S. Census Bureau, and the New York State Division of Criminal Justice Services.

We compiled the facts in the tables and graphs in this section primarily from these government sources, and we performed the statistical analyses and other mathematical calculations in this section, if any. takes full responsibility for the content of the graphic and numeric facts shown in the graphs and tables. Note that the data presented under-represent the actual number of hate crimes and hate crime incidents in the United States. A report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics called Hate Crime, 2003-2009 estimated that there were 239,400 U.S. hate crimes in 2003, and an estimated 148,400 U.S. hate crimes in 2009. In addition, on June 16, 2011, the Department of Justice released a report by their Bureau of Justice Statistics (a study based on detailed surveys of a statistically representative sample of the population) that found an annual average of 195,000 hate crime victimizations between 2003 and 2009, ranging from 239,400 in 2003 to 148,400 in 2009. The prior Bureau of Justice Statistics study—one using the same survey methodology but examining hate crimes between 2000 and 2003—had found an average of 210,000 hate crime victimizations per year. Both Bureau of Justice Statistics studies found that 55% to 56% of hate crimes were not reported to law enforcement. Hate crime underreporting appears to be getting worse even as hate crimes increase. Specifically, a third report by the Bureau of Justice Statistics estimated that there were 259,700 hate crimes annually from 2007 to 2011 in the U.S., and that the percentage of violent hate crime victims who did not report their victimization because they believed the police could not or would not help them increased from 14% in 2003–06 to 24% in 2007–11. Consistent with those findings, the FBI Hate Crime Statistics showed that there were 7,489 and 6,604 hate crime incidents in 2003 and 2009, respectively. Using an interview method, the National Coalition of Anti-Violence Programs (NCAVP) consistently reports higher annual numbers of hate crimes than the FBI reports (the Hate Crime, 2003-2009 report used NCAVP data). As another example, in 2008 the FBI reported a total number of 7 hate crime homicides nationwide; however, the NCAVP reported 28 hate crime homicides of gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgendered persons alone in 2008. The NCAVP reported 22 hate crime homicides of GLBT persons nationwide in 2009, 27 in 2010, and 30 in 2011. In addition, the Southern Poverty Law Center explained in 2001 how and why official hate crime statistics were underrepresentations of the actual number of hate crimes committed.

Permission to distribute any of the information contained in the graphs and tables is required in writing by contacting the

Hate Crime Reporting
Yearly national hate crime reporting participation and participation of reporting by state/region

Types of Hate Crimes
An examination of the types of hate crimes committed nationally, by region/state and by type of bias.

Types of Hate Crimes Nationally

Types of Hate Crimes by:
Type of Bias (i.e. Anti-Black, Anti-Gay, Anti-Jewish, etc.)

Percentages of Change & Victimization Risk
Percentage changes in the number of hate crimes from 1996, by region/state and for the entire United States.

Percentage changes in hate crimes against persons and hate crimes against property, by type of crime and type of bias.

Relative Risk of Victimization, by victim type (based on population estimates and Type of Bias Crime)

Percentage of Change by:
Type of Crime

Percentage of Crimes & Relative Risk of Victimization, by:
Type of Bias (i.e. Anti-Black, Anti-Gay, Anti-Jewish, etc.)

Percentage of Change in:
Crimes Against Persons
Crimes Against Property

Hate Crimes and Economic Variables
Graphical represenations of associations between hate crimes and unemployment rates. For our analyses of these correlations, please read our January 4, 2012 report "Hate Crimes & The Economy: From The Dot Com Boom to The Height of The Great Recession" in our Trend Reports section.

Unemployment and Hate Crimes: National and State correlations

Hate Crime Conviction Rates
Graphical represenation of hate crime conviction rates.

New York State hate crime conviction rates





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